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Abstract: This case provides an opportunity to explore how a government economic promotion agency can foster the will and capacity of locally concentrated traditional industries to prosper in competitive market environments. The agency (IPIA) is a unit of the new regional government of Andalusia, and the industry, comprised of 150 micro-firms, mines marble and fabricates marble goods. IPIA's concept for bringing about social change and economic development is called an "action plan." Part A explains why IPIA chose to work with the marble industry and contrasts this industry's structure with other traditional industries in the region. It also explores the initial phases of the action plan process: managing the joining-up process, negotiating the action plan, and envisioning the future of the industry. Part B explores the phases of building institutions and planning investments and mobilizing external resources. (The case commentary suggests what lesson can be drawn from each of these phases.) Part C focuses on the substance of the marble industry's competitive strategy for adding value and capturing the benefits of its activities in the marble industry, and it discusses some results of the action plan process.